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Wie sich die Zeitformen in der indirekten Rede ändern


Task

Put the following sentences into indirect speech. 

  1. Lisa said, “Ally still hasn’t come.”
  2. Tom answered, “She went to her boyfriend.”
  3. Lisa believed, “That’s not an excuse.”
  4. Tom mentioned, “I will call her so she will hurry up.”

Das musst du wissen

Wenn du wiedergeben willst, was jemand gesagt oder gedacht hat, dann verwendest du die indirekte Rede (indirect speech). Sie wird mit einem reporting verb eingeleitet, z. B. to say, to believe, to mention, to ask. Steht das reporting verb in der Vergangenheit, z. B. im simple past, dann werden die Zeitformen der direkten Rede in der indirekten Rede um eine Zeitstufe in die Vergangenheit verschoben (backshift of tenses). Lerne die Regeln der Zeitverschiebung am besten auswendig.

backshift of tenses direct speech indirect speech
simple present → simple past Mike, “I leave.” Mike said (that) he left.
present progressive → past progressive Mike, “I am leaving.” Mike said (that) he was leaving.
present perfect → past perfect Mike, “I have left.” Mike said (that) he had left.
simple past → past perfect Mike, “I left.” Mike said (that) he had left.
past perfect → past perfect Mike said, “I had left.” Mike said (that) he had left.
going-to → was/were going to + infinitive Mike said, “I am going to leave.” Mike said (that) he was going to leave.
will → would Mike, “I will leave.” Mike said (that) he would left.
may → might Mike, “I may leave.” Mike said (that) he might leave.
can → could Mike: “I can leave.” Mike said (that) he could leave

Ausnahme: Verben wie could, would, might, should, must, used to, needn’t ändern sich nicht!

Schritt 1: Leite den Satz mit dem reporting verb ein

Leite den Satz mit dem reporting verb (z. B. to say, to answer, to report, to mention) ein: Subjekt + reporting verb + that

  1. Lisa said, “Ally still hasn’t come.”
    Lisa said (that) ...
  2. Tom answered, “She went to her boyfriend.”
    Tom answered (that) ...
  3. Lisa believed, “That's not an excuse.”
    Lisa believed (that) ...
  4. Tom mentioned, “I will call her so she will hurry up.”
    Tom mentioned (that)...

Schritt 2: Prüfe, ob du die Pronomen verändern musst

Im zweiten Schritt überprüfst du, ob und welche Pronomen sich in der indirekten Rede ändern.

  1. Lisa said, “Ally still hasn’t come.” → Enthält kein Pronomen.
    → Lisa said (that) Ally ...
  2. Tom answered, “She went to her boyfriend.” → She und her. Da auch im indirekten Satz über sie gesprochen wird, verändern sich diese Pronomen nicht.
    → Tom answered (that) she ... her ...
  3. Lisa believed, “That’s not an excuse.” → Demonstrativpronomen that. Es verändert sich nicht.
    → Lisa believed (that) that ...
  4. Tom mentioned, “I will call her so she will hurry up.” → I (Tom) ist der Sprecher, in der indirect speech wird daraus he. She und her bleiben unverändert.
    → Tom mentioned (that) he ... her ... she ...

Schritt 3: Wende den backshift of tenses an

Da die reporting verbs im simple past stehen, musst du im dritten Schritt die Zeitformen der Verben in der indirekten Rede verändern. Das geschieht nach den Regeln des backshift of tenses. Stell zuerst fest, in welcher Zeit das Verb in der direkten Rede steht, und verschiebe dann die Zeitform in der indirekten Rede.

  1. a) Lisa said, “Ally still hasn’t come.” → Present perfect wird zu past perfect.
    → Lisa said (that) Ally still hadn’t come.
  2. Tom answered, “She went to her boyfriend.” → Simple past wird zu past perfect.
    → Tom answered (that) she had gone to ...
  3. Lisa believed, “That’s not an excuse.” → Simple present wird zu simple past.
    → Lisa believed (that) that was not ...
  4. Tom mentioned, “I will call her so she will hurry up.” → Will wird zu would.
    → Tom mentioned (that) he would call ... would hurry up.

Schritt 4: Vervollständige die Sätze

Im letzten Schritt vervollständigst du die Sätze. Objekt und subject complement stehen am Satzende, Adverbien vor dem Verb.

  1. Lisa said (that) Ally still hadn’t come.
  2. Tom answered (that) she had gone to her boyfriend.
  3. Lisa believed (that) that was not an excuse.
  4. Tom mentioned (that) he would call her so she would hurry up.

Lösung

  1. Lisa said (that) Ally still hadn’t come.
  2. Tom answered (that) she had gone to her boyfriend.
  3. Lisa believed (that) that was not an excuse.
  4. Tom mentioned (that) he would call her so she would hurry up.
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