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Wie du die sprachlich-stilistischen Mittel eines Sachtextes analysierst


Aufgabe

Analyse the stylistic devices that are used and describe their effect.

George W. Bush (* 1946)
Excerpt from the 9/11 TV Address of 11 September 2001
The pictures of airplanes flying into buildings, fires burning, huge structures collapsing, have filled us with disbelief, terrible sadness, and a quiet, unyielding anger. These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat. But they have failed; our country is strong.
A great people has been moved to defend a great nation. Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shattered steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve. America was targeted for attack because we’re the brightest beacon for freedom and opportunity in the world. And no one will keep that light from shining. [ … ]
This is a day when all Americans from every walk of life unite in our resolve for justice and peace. America has stood down enemies before, and we will do so this time. None of us will ever forget this day. Yet, we go forward to defend freedom and all that is good and just in our world.

Schritt 1: Betrachte Stilebene und Wortwahl

Untersuche, wie der Autor Sprache und sprachliche Mittel (stylistic devices) einsetzt, um seine Aussageabsicht zu unterstützen.

  • Bestimme, welche Sprache der Verfasser verwendet, z. B. formelle, sachliche oder informelle Sprachebene, umgangssprachliche Wendungen (idioms). Auf welcher Stilebene (register) bewegt sich der Text? Ist es ein hohes oder niedriges Sprachniveau?
  • Achte auf Auffälligkeiten in der Wortwahl (choice of words): Verwendet der Autor Modewörter, Fremdwörter, Schlagwörter, Fachbegriffe, bestimmte Wortarten (z. B. Adjektive) in ungewohnter Häufung, dramatisches Vokabular usw.?
  • Untersuche den Satzbau (syntax): Werden hauptsächlich hypotaktische Satzgefüge (compound sentences), bestehend aus Haupt- und Nebensätzen (main clauses and subordinate clauses), oder parataktische Satzreihen (coordinate sentences) verwendet?
  • Gibt es Sprachspiele (puns), Redewendungen (idioms) oder Zitate (quotations)?

Schritt 2: Untersuche die rhetorischen Mittel

Bestimme, welche rhetorischen Mittel der Autor verwendet. Verdeutliche dir die beabsichtigte bzw. tatsächlich erreichte Wirkung der rhetorischen Figuren.

  • Anschaulichkeit, Unterhaltung: metaphor, simile, pun
  • Eindringlichkeit, Verstärkung: anaphora, repetition, alliteration, metaphor (e.g. “fire”, “burning” in order to evoke a threat scenario)
  • Spannung: climax
  • Kommunikative Funktion (to involve the reader/audience): Anrede, Gruppensprache, pronouns (we, us)

Lösung

By speaking in the first person plural President Bush makes the audience feel involved. When he says that the pictures of that day “filled us with disbelief … and anger” he signalizes to the audience that he is sharing their feelings, that he is one of them.
President Bush uses a simple style which is appropriate in the face of the catastrophe. At the same time he addresses the audience in an emotional way. Expressions like “our country”, “our nation” and “all Americans from every walk of life unite” indicate his intention of uniting the nation. Metaphors (“foundation of America”, “steel of American resolve”) remind the listeners that the US has always been a powerful country. The “light” metaphor (“light from shining”, “brightest beacon”) implies that American values are what the nation can rely on and what gives orientation to the world.

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